Propeller Accidents

Here are some articles taken from newspapers on accidents involving boat propeller strikes.

Hawaii boat propeller accident rekindles call for propeller guards

Faith Kalei-Imaizumi

Faith Kalei-Imaizumi

Faith Kalei-Imaizumi was participating in the Pailolo Challenge canoe race, a 26 mile race downwind from Maui to Molokai on Saturday 17 September 2016. During the race, escort boats bring out fresh crew members in exchange for tired crew members. Faith was in an escort boat. Her hat fell into the water, she dove in retrieve it. While the accident is being investigated, some think the escort boat reversed to prevent striking another escort boat and she was struck by the propeller. Faith was severely struck in the thighs and groin. She was taken to shore at D.T. Flemming Beach Park in Kapalua where CPR was performed by first responders, life flighted to Maui Memorial Medical Center, then taken to Queens Hospital on Oahu. A GoFundMe page has been established to assist with expenses.

Pailolo Challenge Outrigger Canoe Race

Faith’s accident comes on the heels of the stalling of a proposal to require propeller guards. The proposal was named House Bill 2024.

House Bill 2024 was put forth in the wake of the Sri Shim propeller fatality, in which his stepson, Trey Albrecht, was also injured by the propeller.

While Hawaii press is reporting House Bill 2024 stalled, it actually passed but was amended to take effect in 2088, another example of politicians in action.

In addition to the Faith Kalei-Imaizumi accident, Sri Shim and Trey Albrecht accident, Luke Evslin was injured by a canoe race escort boat propeller in October 2010. Luke is currently speaking out for the use of propeller guards.

Fisho injured after falling from boat, then hit by propeller

 A BOAT propeller has left a man in a serious condition in hospital after his arm was sliced open in Kakadu. 

The 30-year-old was fishing with friends off the coast of Maningrida when he fell from the tinny about 6.30pm yesterday.

He then went underneath the boat, and was hit by the propeller, leaving a serious gash to his arm.

He was initially treated by staff at the Maningrida Health Clinic, who then called on a Careflight plane to fly the man to Darwin.

He was flown to Darwin airport and then taken by ambulance to Royal Darwin Hospital, where he remains in a serious but stable condition in Royal Darwin Hospital.

Student rower left with serious injuries

A crash between a high school rowing boat and a powerboat driven by a veteran coach has left one boy with serious injuries.

20 October 2014

A 12-year-old Dunedin high school boy has suffered serious injuries after his team’s rowing boat and a powerboat collided during one of the first practices of the season.

A year 9 Otago Boys’ High School rowing team was practising in Otago Harbour on Sunday morning when the rowing boat was hit by an aluminium boat driven by 91-year-old coach Fred Strachan.

The coach lost control of his craft and it sped over the top of the boat carrying eight novice rowers, Maritime New Zealand told Fairfax NZ.

Three pupils were taken to hospital after the crash and one suffered serious injuries, believed to have been caused by the powerboat’s propeller.

A St John spokesman told Otago Daily Times a 12-year-old boy was taken to Dunedin Hospital with a serious arm injury.

Nine other patients – including Mr Strachan – were treated for minor injuries, the spokesman said.

Otago Boys’ High School rector Clive Rennie told the paper older rowers went to help the team when they saw what was happening during what was the team’s second day on the water for the season.

“We’re proud of the senior boys and the way they reacted.”

Mr Strachan, who has coached rowers for 70 years – including gold medallist Hamish Bond, returned home from hospital on Sunday.

“He’s very upset about what happened and we’re trying to make sure he gets plenty of support,” Mr Rennie said.

Maritime New Zealand is investigating the incident.




Women come to aid of injured Hawkes Bay boatie after propeller slices through groin

By Patrick O’Sullivan
Emergency personnel prepare the injured man to be flown to hospital from Waimarama. Photo / Kate Cushing
Emergency personnel prepare the injured man to be flown to hospital from Waimarama. Photo / Kate Cushing

Two women have described how they rushed to the aid of a man who was deeply cut by a boat’s propeller in Waimarama early yesterday.

Kate Cushing (above, left) and Margaret Broad saved the life of an injured boatie in Waimarama yesterday. Photo / Warren Buckland
Kate Cushing (above, left) and Margaret Broad saved the life of an injured boatie in Waimarama yesterday. Photo / Warren Buckland

Taradale receptionist Kate Cushing was watching her father and partner launch their boat at about 7.45am when she saw a man fall over while holding a boat in the surf, while its trailer was being parked.

“He got back up and the boat propeller sliced in his groin and in his knee, and he fell back over again,” she said.

“My partner held the boat for him and he came out on to the beach and it was just pissing out with blood. It was horrible, I have never seen so much blood – it was disgusting.”

Also watching the boats being launched was Hastings retiree Margaret Broad.

“The two guys were launching a boat at Kuku Rocks and it was a bit sloppy,” she said.

“The crew member got knocked over by the boat and then the boat went up, came down and the blades of the prop sliced his inner right thigh.

“He was bleeding profusely from the thigh cut, [through] an artery, and screamed out for an ambulance.”

The women sat the 63-year-old man on rocks and dialled 111.

She succeeded in stemming the strong flow.

“I had my fist right on that cut as hard as I could.”

Ms Cushing said she did the same on the knee injury.

“There was a woman walking past and I said, ‘You wouldn’t happen to be a nurse, would you?’ And she was, so she took his pulse.”

After about 20 minutes members of the Waimarama Rural Fire Force took over from Ms Broad, a former Queen’s Guide and Girl Guide leader.

Ms Broad said he remained conscious throughout because of quick action.

“We managed to get to him in time and stem the flow.”

She said she was now the butt of jokes, having held her fist on a man’s groin for 20 minutes.

“We kept him cheerful by joking about that.”

A St John Ambulance and Lowe Corporation Rescue Helicopter arrived on the scene and the man was airlifted to hospital.

The women were more stoic than Ms Cushing’s partner, who stepped into a pool of blood to steady the aluminium boat.

“He was nearly fainting because he can’t deal with blood.”

Last night the man was in a serious but stable condition in Hawkes Bay Hospital.



Man cut by boat propeller

A man has been flown to hospital after being cut by a boat propeller on a beach at Waimarama in Hawke’s

12 October 2014

A 63-year-old man has been flown to hospital after being cut by a boat’s propeller at a beach in Hawke’s Bay.

The man’s leg was injured while the boat was being launched from the beach at Waimarama southeast of Hastings, about 8am on Sunday.

The Lowe Corporation Rescue Helicopter flew him to Hawke’s Bay Hospital.

He had moderate injuries, a St John ambulance spokesman said.



Man’s foot cut on boat propeller Monday Apr 1, 2013

A man was injured in a boating accident at Waimarama beach early yesterday evening.

A person who went to the scene said the man suffered lower leg injuries when he came into contact with the boat’s propeller.

Lowe Corporation Rescue Helicopter Trust Spokeswoman Louise Harvey said the 40-year-old man sustained a severe laceration to his foot while jumping off the back of a boat at Waimarama.

He was flown by rescue helicopter to Hawke’s Bay Regional Hospital in Hastings for further treatment.

Hawke’s Bay District Health Board spokeswoman Anna Kirk said last night the man was still being assessed in the emergency department but was in a stable condition


Propeller tragedy horrifies witnesses


Last updated 05:00 09/02/2014

Horrified witnesses to a diving tragedy where a man was mutilated by a boat propeller were so traumatised they met last night to comfort each other.

Aucklander Bruce Porter, 56, was on the diving trip at Tutukaka, 30km east of Whangarei, with a group of friends from the Western Underwater Dive Club who chartered the 16.5m catamaran Pacific Hideaway, skippered by owner Mark Barnes.

The accident occurred at the entrance of the Poor Knights Islands about 7pm on Friday. Police said Porter sustained serious facial injuries when he was struck by a propeller.

It is understood he was conscious when dragged onboard the vessel but died soon afterwards, and resuscitation attempts by Coastguard volunteers from Tutukaka were unsuccessful.

Diane Garaway, who was on the boat, said the group met last night to support each other but she was too traumatised to discuss what she saw.

“I’m in shock. At the moment we’re coming together as the group of friends we are, and just trying to support each other,” she said.

“That’s what we’ve agreed to and that’s how we all feel. It’s very fresh.”

It is understood Porter, a civil engineer from Nottingham, England, came to New Zealand with his wife Jill and settled in Greenhithe on Auckland’s North Shore.

A friend and former dive partner, Cameron Smirk, said Porter had children in the UK and described his death as “a sad loss”.

“He was a great guy,” he said. “It was a shock to everyone.”

Another member of the Western Underwater Dive Club, who declined to be named, described Porter as a passionate diver since joining five years ago. He was a pleasure to dive with and a pleasure to be around.

“My wife and I developed a close bond with Bruce and we’ll feel his loss for a long time to come.”

Police will now investigate the death on behalf of the coroner alongside Maritime New Zealand. A spokeswoman said it usually took several months for reports to be completed.

It is rare for police to make a decision over whether charges will be laid until Maritime NZ completes its investigation.

Denise Barnes, wife of the skipper, said they too were traumatised.

“It’s very tragic and it’s not really the time or the place for us [to talk about it] at the moment,” she said.

The local kaumatua blessed the Pacific Hideaway yesterday and a three-day rahui (restriction) had been placed on the scene of the accident by another company, Dive! Tutukaka.

Owner Kate Malcolm said boating accidents were rare in the Poor Knights Islands.

“As far as I know it was an all-round tragedy. We’re a close-knit community here in Tutukaka so we’re all affected,” she said.

“The skipper is taking it very hard, as you do. I don’t think there was any fault on anyone’s part, it was just a tragedy. That will come out eventually, I’m sure. But at the moment it’s just about taking time and taking stock.

“The operators are well-known and well-liked and very respectful, there’s no cowboys out here.”

Association of Diving Contractors vice-president and skipper Brendon Cappely said it would not be clear who was at fault until investigations were carried out, but maritime law required all skippers to take precautions.

Skippers had to maintain a proper lookout and had to manoeuvre their vessel safely. This meant staying below five knots when within 50m of divers and within 200m of a vessel displaying a dive flag, he said.

“But an accident like this could happen when you are going very, very slowly. There are a lot of factors out there. This sounds like very, very bad luck.”

Divers were also expected to keep a lookout and not surface close to boats.

– Sunday Star Times


Man seriously injured when he was run over by his crew’s escort boat

Monday, October 11, 2010 11:45 pm Luke Evslin, seen here in this 2006 photo, was seriously injured in the Moloka‘i Hoe canoe race Sunday when his crew’s escort boat accidently ran over him.

..LIHU‘E — Kaua‘i native Luke Evslin was seriously injured during the Moloka‘i Hoe canoe race Sunday when he was run over by his crew’s escort boat. He remains in stable condition at Maui Memorial Medical Center, Evslin said Monday afternoon from his hospital bed.

Right when he jumped from the escort boat to make a three-person crew change, a wave hit the boat, sending it overtop of him.

When the bottom of the boat and propeller hit Evslin, 25, he said he thought he had been cut in half and was relieved to reach back and feel much of his body.

“I felt the prop go through me,” he said, noting feeling “pulp” where his back skin used to be.

He swam to the surface and started screaming and the two other paddlers who were supposed to enter the six-person canoe during the partial crew change came to his aid, helping him back into the escort boat, which had quickly turned around to aid the men who were competing in the annual Moloka‘i-to-O‘ahu outrigger canoe race.

Evslin recalls lying on the floor of the boat and, based on the terrified looks on the faces of the boat crew and paddlers, he thought the end was near.

“I was pretty sure I was dying,” he said. The paddlers jumped on his back to provide direct pressure to control the bleeding and later told him they could see his spinal cord, he said.

The ocean was too rough to allow an airlift from the boat, or even his transfer to a larger boat for an emergency evacuation, so the escort boat returned to Hale O Lono Harbor on Moloka‘i. The trip takes around an hour, which he recalled as both the longest 60 minutes of his life and a time to reflect on all his blessings.

“That whole hour seemed like eternity,” he said, noting it gave him time to feel the love surrounding him on the boat and the love of his family from afar.

“I wasn’t scared of death in the slightest,” Evslin said. He felt enveloped by a “feeling of total love.”

When the boat reached Hale O Lono Harbor, paramedics were waiting. He was stabilized at Moloka‘i General Hospital and flown by helicopter to Maui Memorial Medical Center, as the weather was too bad for him to be flown to Honolulu, he said.

On Maui, three surgeons worked on him simultaneously, treating him for the outside wounds to his back and a “knicked” spine, broken pelvis and bruised kidney, but nothing he can’t fully recover from, he said.

Evslin plans to leave the hospital Friday and in three months be back in the ocean, he said. To win his hospital release, all he has to do is prove he can walk with a walker and sit up long enough to make the plane ride from Kahului to either Honolulu or Kaua‘i.

While he lives on O‘ahu now, he is considering rehabilitating on Kaua‘i, he said.

On Monday, he was in stable condition, though he said he lost a lot of blood. He didn’t know how many pints he needed. Also on Monday, he stood up for the first time since the accident, he said.

Evslin is the son of Dr. and Mrs. Lee Evslin of Wailua Homesteads. His fiancé, Sokchea Eng, and Dr. Evslin flew to Maui to be with him.

The escort boat captain also called and visited him. “He’s more shooken up than me,” said Evslin, whose doctors and nurses on Maui have told him their greatest concern is possible infection of the spinal column.

The canoe crew continued on without making the change, so the nine-person crew became a six-man Ironman team slicing through the entire Ka‘iwi Channel, 41 miles, in very difficult conditions.

They were finishing the race before the escort boat got back to them, and the boat’s crew conveyed the news that Evslin had been injured and may not have survived, because at that time they didn’t know his condition, Evslin said.

Brian Curll, president of Wailua’s Hui O Mana Ka Pu‘uwai Outrigger Canoe Club, said he spoke Monday with Evslin’s mother, who detailed the extent of the injuries to his spine, back muscles and side.

“He is in a great deal of pain and is presently on a self-administered morphine drip so that he can attempt to keep himself comfortable and reduce muscle contractions so that he does not re-tear himself,” Curll said in an e-mail.

Curll said Evslin has been able to be online and has looked at posts on, an ocean paddler website. Well-wishers can leave messages for him at that site.

Carlton Helm, in a post on the website, said Evslin was injured while making the first change off La‘au Point, Moloka‘i.

“He was severely propped and incurred injuries that he stated if it was an inch higher, or lower, from the initial area of injury, would have been fatal,” Helm said.



Scuba diver injured when struck by boat propeller

SEARCH AND RESCUE 29 January 2010, 8:40AM

By Westpac Rescue Helicopter – MARLBOROUGH

The Wellington-based Westpac Rescue Helicopter rescued a man struck by a boat propeller from the Marlborough Sounds late this afternoon.

The helicopter, with a Wellington Free Ambulance paramedic onboard, responded to Ships Cove in Endeavour Inlet just after 3pm.

When the helicopter arrived at the scene they found a man who suffered a serious injury to his leg when he was struck by a propeller.

“As we understand it the man was coming to the surface when his catch bag caught on the moving propeller, dragging him into it” says Westpac Rescue Helicopter crewman Dave Greenberg. “The boats skipper immediately put the boat into neutral but the mans leg was struck causing a deep wound to his leg”.

The 58 year old Palmerston North man was onboard the boat in the Marlborough Sounds. When the accident occurred people onboard the boat called for help via their marine radio and headed for Ships Cove where they could dock and the helicopter could land nearby.

The man was treated by the WFA paramedic and transported to Wellington Hospital where he is currently being treated in the Emergency Department.

Man may lose toes after boating accident

NZPA January 14, 2011, 9:10 am

A man may lose some toes after his foot was caught in the propeller of the boat he was launching at Matauri Bay in Northland.

Holidaymakers from a nearby camping ground rushed to his aid as the 44-year-old man was left screaming in agony with his mangled foot on the shore.

A surgical nurse among the campers wrapped the man in a blanket and tended to his foot until the arrival of ambulance officers.

Firefighters cleared a space for the Northland rescue helicopter to land and the man was flown to Whangarei Hospital.

Helicopter rescues injured woman after boating accident in Waikawa Bay

Press Release – Westpac Rescue Helicopter – December 10, 2010

The Wellington Based Westpac Rescue Helicopter was called to Waikawa Bay in the Marlborough Sounds this morning.

A 49 year old female from Australia was about to go swimming but when she hoped off the back of the boat she was struck by the propeller. She suffered lacerations to both of her legs and a possible fracture to one leg. The people on the boat administered first aid on the way back to Waikawa Bay.

The Helicopter responded to with a Wellington Free Ambulance Paramedic on board.

On arrival of the helicopter the boat was at the wharf and the Picton Ambulance staff were on the vessel treating the patient.

The patient was flown to Wellington Hospital Emergency Department where she was treated for her injuries.

LIFE CUT SHORT: Rebecca Stockwell.

A Marlborough bride has been killed on her honeymoon in Fiji in a horrific boating accident. Rebecca Stockwell, nee Crawley, was snorkelling when a boat propeller struck her.

The 27-year-old from Blenheim had been married for just six days to Hayden Stockwell. They were married at Crawley’s sister’s house in Blenheim on Saturday, November 24, and flew to Fiji last Wednesday for their honeymoon.

They were snorkelling together at 10.30am on Friday off the island of Matamanoa, on the west coast of Viti Levu, when a passing boat hit Crawley with its propeller, Fiji police spokesman Josaia Weicavu said.

The boatman, who is a labourer at the resort hotel, went for help.

Crawley was airlifted to a Lautoka hospital but died, Weicavu said.

Police had interviewed the boatman, who told them he did not see the couple snorkelling.

The police were waiting for the post-mortem report, Weicavu said.

Six members of the couple’s grieving families have travelled to Fiji to support Stockwell.

In a death notice published yesterday, addressed to his “darling wife Boodles”, Stockwell said: “What we had was so short, but nothing or nobody has ever in my life made me as happy as you have. Your infectious laugh and smile and your glowing eyes will be in my heart forever.”

Crawley’s colleagues at Mark Stevenson First National Real Estate, where she had worked for seven months as a saleswoman, were devastated.

“Bec was a fabulous person who was always full of joy. A very caring and positive person, she was loved by us all,” Stevenson said.

“The planning and lead-up over the past months to Bec’s recent marriage was for all of us a wonderful experience and we are struggling to come to terms with the tragic accident that has ended Bec’s life.”

Diver injured by boat propeller

NZPA – Jan 28, 2011

A man struck by a boat propellor while diving in the Marlborough Sounds today was flown to Wellington Hosopital for treatment on a serious leg injury.The Wellington-based Westpac rescue helicopter, with a Wellington Free Ambulance paramedic on board, responded to Ships Cove in Endeavour Inlet just after 3pm.”As we understand it, the man was coming to the surface when his catch bag caught on the moving propeller, dragging him into it,” said Westpac rescue helicopter crewman Dave Greenberg.The boat’s skipper immediately put the boat into neutral but the mans leg was struck, causing a deep wound.”The 58-year-old Palmerston North man had been on board the boat in the Sounds. When the accident happened others on board called for help via their marine radio and headed for Ships Cove where they could dock and the helicopter could land nearby.

The man was treated by the paramedic and then taken to Wellington Hospital for treatment.

Diver run over by own boat in freak Kawau Bay accident

From The Rodney Times, 22/02/1999

A Kawau Bay diver suffered back lacerations when he was run over by his own boat in a freak accident on Saturday. An English visitor, the 33 year old fell off the boat and was hit by it’s propeller after starting the motor to pick up his diving partner a few hundred metres away.

He had not realised the motor was in gear and went overboard when the boat lurched forward. With the anchor still down the boat circled around the anchor rope and went over the top of the man.

He managed to swim to a nearby rock, and his diving companion went to his aid. The pair flagged down a passing boat to take the injured man to Sandspit. Warkworth St John Ambulance officers picked him up and took him to North Shore Hospital.

Propeller Slashes diver’s leg

From The Evening Post, 13/12/1999

A diver’s leg was slashed and broken after he was tangled in a boat propeller in Tory Channel yesterday. He was airlifted to Wellington Hospital in the Westpac Trust rescue helicopter with serious injuries.

A Wellington Free Ambulance paramedic treated the man. A spokesman from the crew said he understood the 41 year old Nelson man stepped off the back of the boat while it was still moving backwards.

Mercy Dash to save man’s leg

From The Evening Post, 16/01/2001

A man was severely gashed when he was run over by his own boat in a freak accident at the Chatham Islands last night. Wellington’s Life Flight Trust air ambulance made a five hour over-night mercy dash to save the 23 year old Chatham Islands man’s leg. The freak accident occurred shortly after 5pm when the boat’s 40hp outboard engine flicked into gear as the victim started it.

Trust Crew Chief Dave Greenberg said the man was thrown overboard and the boat began circling him, getting closer each time. “In a desperate bid to protect his head and chest the man kicked out at the boat, sending it off track of his head.” Mr Greenberg said. “Unfortunately, the propeller struck the back of his right leg several times, causing severe damage.”

Short out-takes from newspapers and accident reports:

In New Zealand in 1998 there were 123 strikes by boat propellers.

A 46-year-old North Shore man died while diving for scallops with three friends off Kawau Island on 8 January when a 10 meter boat ran over him, its propeller killing him.

A man jumped over the side of a boat to learn how to ski, whilst the vessel was towing a skier behind. When the vessel slowed down, the man sank in the water and was dragged by the current under the boat. He surfaced about 10 meters behind the boat. He received cuts on his leg and foot from the propeller.

A diver was snorkeling. He sustained injuries consistent with having been hit by a propeller of a passing boat. The injuries proved to be fatal.

Victim was assisting to launch a runabout when a wave caught the vessel as the motor was running and the propeller engaged. The wave swept the victim under the propeller area as the operator of the vessel accelerated away from the wharf. The victim received a deep gash to his left thigh.

Passenger’s foot was injured by the propeller when swimming towards dolphins.

Injured person was seen to lose his balance on the inflatable sponson of the boat. He was seated on the port side and was the foremost passenger on that side. The skipper stopped the motor as soon as possible but as the boat was doing 20 miles per hour at the time it was too late to stop the injured person striking the propeller skeg and propeller with his arm.

A 14 year old girl attending a party at a friend’s home, jumped into the water by a lighted pier at midnight. Some young men were watching the party from their boats off the pier. One of them started their boat and turned hard to move further from the pier. The stern drive unit passed over the girl cutting her severely. Victim successfully sued for $4.5 million US.

Propeller man’s miracle escape

First published in The Argus, UK on Tuesday 03 September 2002

A man narrowly escaped death when he fell into the propellers of his inflatable boat.

Tim Maddran was within inches of becoming the third person to lose his life in the waters off Brighton this summer when he tumbled over the side of his dinghy. The 41-year-old fell against the propeller’s blades, receiving gashes to his back and head as he struggled underwater.

His terrified girlfriend, Tracey Stanmore, 38, switched off the engine and Mr Maddran managed to fight his way to the surface. Coastguards were stunned by what they say was a miracle escape. The accident happened on Saturday afternoon as Mr Maddran and Miss Stanmore spent a day boating. After a couple of hours drifting between the two Brighton piers the pair set off for Shoreham harbour.

Mr Maddran, of Stonery Road, Portslade, said: “I normally sit inside the boat and steer but on this occasion my girlfriend decided to have a go so I sat on the side to tell her what to do. “I looked away for a moment and I was gone, straight over the side. “I felt a stunning blow but managed to get myself up to the surface as quickly as possible. “By then the boat was about 10ft away but I managed to swim back to it. “I didn’t really understand what had happened until we saw the back of my T-shirt was shredded.”

Mr Maddran said the propeller had felt like a cheese grater going over his back. He said: “Another couple of inches and it would have been curtains. I know I’m lucky to be alive. “I have got away with five stitches in my head and six fairly large grazes on my back.”

Mr Maddran thanked Shoreham coastguards, who gave him emergency treatment on shore. He said: “In future I will be more cautious and I urge other people to stay inside their boats, especially children. It’s true the sea is an evil mistress.”

Coastguard Dave Cassan said he had not witnessed a luckier escape in his ten years based at Shoreham. He said: “This person had a line of propeller blade injuries on his spine, straight up the middle of his back and a cut to the back of his head. “His head was still bleeding when we got to him. It took the hospital about two hours to stem it. I have never seen someone come away from propeller injuries so lightly. “Normally a person hit by a propeller ends up with injuries which are either extreme or fatal. “Another half inch and we would have been talking about another fatality”

Mr Cassan said people who sat on the sides of boats put their lives at risk. He said: “This man was just doing what everyone else does. “A lot of people sit on the sides because it is nice and bouncy but all you have to do is glance away for a second and you’re over. “I can’t count the number of times I have seen speedboats leaving Shoreham harbour with children sitting on the bow. You cringe because it’s a horror story waiting to happen.”


S.P.I.N. – Stop Propeller Injuries Now

SPIN actively promotes boating safety issues, specifically the need to protect the public from accidents and fatalities from the exposed propeller.